The sixteen grandsons of Noah
Secular history gives much evidence to show that the
survivors of Noah's Flood were real historical figures, whose names were
indelibly carved on much of the ancient world
When Noah and his family stepped out of the Ark, they were the only people on
Earth. It fell to Noah's three sons, Shem, Ham, and Japheth, and their wives, to
repopulate the Earth through the children that were born to them after the
Flood. Of Noah's grandchildren, 16 grandsons are named in Genesis chapter 10.
Ruins in Turkey. There is evidence suggesting that this
country's name is derived from that of Noah's descendant Togarmah (see
God has left us ample evidence to confirm that these 16 grandsons of Noah
really lived, that the names the Bible gives were their exact names, and that
after the Babel dispersion (Genesis
11) their descendants fanned out over the earth and established the various
nations of the ancient world.
The first generations after the Flood lived to be very old, with some men
outliving their children, grandchildren, and great-grandchildren. This set them
apart. The 16 grandsons of Noah were the heads of their family clans, which
became large populations in their respective areas. Several things happened:
- People in various areas called themselves by the name of the man who was
their common ancestor.
- They called their land, and often their major city and major river, by
- Sometimes the various nations fell off into ancestor worship. When this
happened, it was natural for them to name their god after the man who was
ancestor of all of them, or to claim their long-living ancestor as their
All of this means that the evidence has been preserved in a way that can
never be lost, and all the ingenuity of man cannot erase. We will now examine
The seven sons of Japheth
Genesis 10:1-2 reads:
'Now these are the generations of the sons of
Noah, Shem, Ham, and Japheth: and unto them were sons born after the flood.
The sons of Japheth; Gomer, and Magog, and Madai, and Javan, and Tubal, and
Meshech, and Tiras.'
The first of Noah's grandsons mentioned is Gomer. Ezekiel locates the early
descendants of Gomer, along with Togarmah (a son of Gomer), in the north
38:6). In modern Turkey is an area which in New Testament times was called
Galatia. The Jewish historian Flavius Josephus records that the
people who were called Galatians or Gauls in his day (c. AD 93) were previously
They migrated westward to what are now called France and
Spain. For many centuries France was called Gaul, after the
descendants of Gomer. North-west Spain is called Galicia to this day.
Some of the Gomerites migrated further to what is now called Wales.
The Welsh historian, Davis, records a traditional Welsh belief that the
descendants of Gomer 'landed on the Isle of Britain from France, about three
hundred years after the flood'.2 He also records that the Welsh language is called Gomeraeg (after their
Other members of their clan settled along the way, including in
Armenia. The sons of Gomer were 'Ashkenaz, and Riphath, and Togarmah' (Genesis
10:3). Encyclopaedia Britannica says that the Armenians
traditionally claim to be descended from Togarmah and Ashkenaz.3
Ancient Armenia reached into Turkey. The name Turkey probably
comes from Togarmah. Others of them migrated to Germany.
Ashkenaz is the Hebrew word for Germany.
The next grandson mentioned is Magog. According to Ezekiel, Magog lived in
the north parts (Ezekiel
39:2). Josephus records that those whom he called Magogites, the Greeks
called Scythians.1 According to Encyclopaedia Britannica,
the ancient name for the region which now includes part of Romania
and the Ukraine was Scythia.4
The next grandson is Madai. Along with Shem's son Elam, Madai is the ancestor
of our modern-day Iranians. Josephus says that the descendants of Madai were
called Medes by the Greeks.1 Every time the Medes
are mentioned in the Old Testament, the word used is the Hebrew word Madai
(maday). After the time of Cyrus, the Medes are always (with one exception)
mentioned along with the Persians. They became one kingdom with one law--'the
law of the Medes and Persians' (Daniel
6:8, 12, 15). Later they were simply called Persians. Since
1935 they have called their country Iran. The Medes also
The name of the next grandson, Javan, is the Hebrew word for Greece.
Greece, Grecia, or Grecians appears five times in the Old
Testament, and is always the Hebrew word Javan. Daniel refers to 'the
king of Grecia' (Daniel
8:21), literally 'the king of Javan'. Javan's
sons were Elishah, Tarshish, Kittim, and Dodanim (Genesis
10:4), all of whom have connections with the Greek people. The Elysians (an
ancient Greek people) obviously received their name from Elishah. Tarshish or
Tarsus was located in the region of Cilicia (modern Turkey).
Encyclopaedia Britannica says that Kittim is the biblical
name for Cyprus.6 The people who initially settled around the area of Troy worshipped
Jupiter under the name of Jupiter Dodonaeus, possibly a reference to the fourth
son of Javan, with Jupiter a derivative of Japheth. His oracle was at Dodena.
The Greeks worshipped this god but called him Zeus.
Next is Tubal. Ezekiel mentions him along with Gog and Meshech (Ezekiel
39:1). Tiglath-pileser I, king of Assyria in about 1100 BC, refers to the
descendants of Tubal as the Tabali. Josephus recorded their name as the
Thobelites, who were later known as Iberes.1
'Their land, in Josephus' day, was called by the Romans Iberia, and
covered what is now (the former Soviet State of) Georgia
whose capital to this day bears the name Tubal as Tbilisi. From here, having
crossed the Caucasus mountains, this people migrated due north-east, giving
their tribal name to the river Tobol, and hence to the famous city of
Meshech, the name of the next grandson, is the ancient name for
Moscow. Moscow is both the capital of Russia, and the region that
surrounds the city. To this day, one section, the Meschera Lowland, still
carries the name of Meshech, virtually unchanged by the ages.
According to Josephus, the descendants of grandson Tiras were called
Thirasians. The Greeks changed their name to Thracians.1 Thrace
reached from Macedonia on the south to the Danube River on the
north to the Black Sea on the east. It took in much of what became
Yugoslavia. World Book Encyclopaedia says: 'The people of
Thrace were savage Indo-Europeans, who liked warfare and looting.'8
Tiras was worshipped by his descendants as Thuras, or Thor, the god of thunder.
The four sons of Ham
Next we come to the sons of Ham: Cush, Mizraim, Phut, and Canaan (Genesis
The descendants of Ham live mainly in south-west Asia and Africa. The Bible
often refers to Africa as the land of Ham (Psalms
106:22). The name of Noah's grandson Cush is the Hebrew word for old
Ethiopia (from Aswan south to Khartoum). Without exception, the word
Ethiopia in the English Bible is always a translation of the Hebrew
word Cush. Josephus rendered the name as Chus, and says that the
Ethiopians 'are even at this day, both by themselves and by all men in Asia,
Noah's next grandson mentioned was Mizraim. Mizraim is the Hebrew
word for Egypt. The name Egypt appears hundreds of times in the
Old Testament and (with one exception) is always a translation of the word
Mizraim. E.g. at the burial of Jacob, the Canaanites observed the mourning
of the Egyptians and so called the place Abel Mizraim (Genesis
Phut, the name of Noah's next grandson is the Hebrew name for Libya.
It is so translated three times in the Old Testament. The ancient river Phut was
in Libya. By Daniel's day, the name had been changed to Libya (Daniel
11:43). Josephus says, 'Phut also was the founder of Libia [sic],
and called the inhabitants Phutites, from himself'.9
Canaan, the name of Noah's next grandson, is the Hebrew name for the general
region later called by the Romans Palestine, i.e. modern Israel
and Jordan. Here we should look briefly at a few of the descendants of Ham (Genesis
10:14-18). There is Philistim, obviously the ancestor of the Philistines
(clearly giving rise to the name Palestine), and Sidon, the founder of the
ancient city that bears his name, and Heth, the patriarch of the ancient Hittite
empire. Also, this descendant is listed in
Genesis 10:15-18 as being the ancestor of the Jebusites (Jebus was the
ancient name for Jerusalem--Judges
19:10), the Amorites, the Girgasites, the Hivites, the Arkites, the Sinites,
the Arvadites, the Zemarites, and the Hamathites, ancient peoples who lived in
the land of Canaan.
The most prominent descendant of Ham was Nimrod, the founder of Babel
(Babylon), as well as of Erech, Accad and Calneh in Shinar (Babylonia).
Great empires of the past: Egypt, Assyria, Babylon, and
Persia all have strong historical links to the Biblical figures
connected with the sons of Noah. Most, if not all, tribes and nations
can be traced to these men through their descendants.
A huge carved statue of the great pharaoh Ramesses II of
Ruins from the ancient Nabatean city of Petra.
The five sons of Shem
Last we come to the sons of Shem: Elam, Asshur, Arphaxad, Lud, and Aram (Genesis
Elam is the ancient name for Persia, which is itself the
ancient name for Iran. Until the time of Cyrus the people here
were called Elamites, and they were still often called that even in New
Testament times. In
Acts 2:9, the Jews from Persia who were present at Pentecost were called
Elamites. The Persians are thus descended from both Elam, the son of
Shem, and from Madai, the son of Japheth (see above). Since the 1930s they have
called their country Iran.
It is interesting to note that the word 'Aryan', which so fascinated Adolf
Hitler, is a form of the word 'Iran'. Hitler wanted to produce a pure Aryan
'race' of supermen. But the very term 'Aryan' signifies a mixed line of Semites
Asshur is the Hebrew word for Assyria. Assyria was
one of the great ancient empires. Every time the words Assyria or
Assyrian appear in the Old Testament, they are translated from the word
Asshur. He was worshipped by his descendants.
'Indeed, as long as Assyria lasted, that is until 612
BC, accounts of battles, diplomatic affairs
and foreign bulletins were daily read out to his image; and every Assyrian
king held that he wore the crown only with the express permission of
Asshur's deified ghost.'10
Arphaxad was the progenitor of the Chaldeans. This 'is
confirmed by the Hurrian (Nuzi) tablets, which render the name as Arip-hurra--the
founder of Chaldea.'11
His descendant, Eber, gave his name to the Hebrew people via
the line of Eber-Peleg-Reu-Serug-Nahor-Terah-Abram (Genesis
11:16-26). Eber's other son, Joktan, had 13 sons (Genesis
10:26-30), all of whom appear to have settled in Arabia.12
Lud was the ancestor of the Lydians. Lydia was in what is
now Western Turkey. Their capital was Sardis--one of the seven
churches of Asia was at Sardis (Revelation
Aram is the Hebrew word for Syria. Whenever the
word Syria appears in the Old Testament it is a translation of the word Aram.
The Syrians call themselves Arameans, and their language is called Aramaic.
Before the spread of the Greek Empire, Aramaic was the international language (2
Kings 18:26 ff). On the cross, when Jesus cried out, 'Eloi,
Eloi, lama sabachthani' (Mark
He was speaking Aramaic, the language of the common people.
We have only taken the briefest glance at Noah's sixteen grandsons,14
but enough has been said to show that they really did live, that they were who
the Bible says they were, and that their descendants are identifiable on the
pages of history. Not only is the Bible not a collection of myths and legends,
but it stands alone as the key to the history of the earliest ages of the world.
- Josephus: Complete Works, Kregal Publications, Grand Rapids,
Michigan, 'Antiquities of the Jews', 1:6:1 (i.e. book 1, chapter 6, section
- J. Davis, History of the Welsh Baptists from the Year Sixty-three to
the Year One Thousand Seven Hundred and Seventy, D.M. Hogan,
Pittsburgh, 1835, republished by The Baptist, Aberdeen, Mississippi, p. 1,
- Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2:422, 1967.
- Encyclopaedia Britannica, 20:116, 1967.
- A.C. Custance, Noah's Three Sons, Vol.1, 'The Doorway Papers', Zondervan,
Michigan, p. 92, 1975.
- Encyclopaedia Britannica 3:332, 1992.
- Bill Cooper,
After the Flood,
New Wine Press, Chichester, England, p. 203, 1995.
- World Book Encyclopaedia, Vol. 18, p. 207, 1968.
- Ref. 1, 1:6:2
- Ref. 7, p. 170.
- Ref. 7, p. 172.
- Ref. 5, p. 117.
- Matthew 27:46 and Mark 15:34 quote the Aramaic form of Psalm 22:1, but
Matthew reconverted Eloi to the Hebrew Eli.
- For example, we made no attempt here to trace the origins of the
Chinese. For evidence on this subject see 'The original, "unknown" God of
China', Creation 20(3):50-54, 1998.
The following are from
"Old Earth, why not?"
by James I. Nienhuis. You can read the entire
eBook by clicking here.
Egypt, considered by many to be the world’s old
est civilization, is said to have had royal dynasties
which began before 3000 B.C. Since the
Flood occurred about 2400 B.C. (as deduced by
counting the ages of the patriarchs in the Bible), it
seems one of these figures is incorrect.
The Egyptian historian, Manetho, who lived
around 300 B.C., compiled a list of Egyptian kings
that is the cornerstone of mainstream ancient Egyptian
chronological studies. However, his list has been
shown to be fraught with inaccuracies. The scholar
James H. Breasted wrote that Manetho’s list of kings
is “a late, careless and uncritical compilation which
can be proven wrong from the contemporary monuments
in the vast majority of cases, where such monuments
Sir Alan Gardner mocks Manetho’s work in saying, “what is proudly advertised
as Egyptian history is merely a collection of rags
Sir Isaac Newton noted that Manetho reported
the same reigns twice under different names, listed
kings in the wrong order, corrupted their names, repeated
them again and again, and included the names
of other great men and women who were only the
relations of kings or their viceroys or secretaries of
state. Ancient Egypt had regional rulers who controlled
various “kingdoms” within Egypt simultaneously.
These contemporaneous kings were inaccurately
recorded by Manetho in sequential order, therefore,
Manetho’s list should not trusted, and the
timeline for ancient Egypt must be shortened.
The heavy rainfall in Egypt, during the Ice Age,
is evidenced by the extensive water erosion of the limestone
quarry in which the allegedly 4,500-year-old
Sphinx was built, and now rests. But the Ice Age supposedly
ended 10,000 years ago? Much heavier rain
did water the Middle East and northern Africa in the
centuries after the Flood, and thus, caused the intensive limestone weathering of the Sphinx’s quarry.
China is said to date back to about 3000 B.C.
This date is based upon the flawed carbon 14 results
from ancient settlements and the allegedly long “legendary
period” of China. One of the legendary heroes
named “Yu” engineered a massive land reclamation
project. Apparently, a large area was flooded with
water, and he organized the project which drained
the land of this water. Could this be one of the residual
“puddles” from Noah’s Flood that was discussed
in Chapter 10?
One ancient classic Chinese writing, called the
Hikking, tells the story of Fuhi, whom the Chinese
consider to be the father of their civilization. This
history records that Fuhi, his wife, three sons and three
daughters, escaped a great flood. He and his family
were the only people left alive on earth. After the great
flood they repopulated the world. An ancient temple
in China has a wall painting that shows Fuhi’s vessel
in the raging flood waters. Dolphins are swimming
around the boat and a dove with an olive branch in
its beak is flying towards it.
Details in this story virtually match the Biblical
details, as do details in other flood legends from around
the world (which are discussed in Chapter 5).
solar eclipse ever recorded happened in 2134 B.C. in
China, so it appears the “legendary period” in China is
not as long as popularly imagined. But, the “stone
age” settlements’ assumed great antiquity (due to flawed
14C dates) allows old-earthers to imagine that the Chinese
civilization is older than it really is.
The ancient Babylonians are said to have begun
building their impressive structures about 3000 B.C.
However, a king of Babylon, Nebuchadnezzar, (who
ruled about 500 B.C.) wrote on a plaque that was discovered
at the ruins of an ancient tower, that he
(Nebuchadnezzar) had refurbished this tower which
originally was nearly completed by the first king of
Babylon, but could not be completed because the builders
could no longer understand one another’s spoken
words. Nebuchadnezzar further inscripted on the
plaque that this first king ruled 42 generations before
about 500 B.C. Here an ancient king of Babylon
stated that Babylon began about 2200 B.C.!
This time frame fits that presented in the Bible;
Nimrod, occultist and rebel against God, was the first
king of Babylon, about 200 years after the Flood. At
the tower of Babel, God confused the languages, so
the clans then could not understand each other, and
hence, moved away from Mesopotamia as God had
previously commanded, “Go forth and repopulate the
Legends of this historical event abound from
disparate people groups from around the world.
Astronomical records, obtained by Alexander the Great from the Babylonians, are
dated back 1903 years from 331 B.C. The Babylonians told Alexander that Babylon
began when the astronomical records began, in 2234 B.C. This is the record of Babylonians,
not the possessors of the Old Testament, the Jews.
The Babylonians had no interest in historical agreement
with their rivals, the Jews. And yet, both nations
agree on the time of the founding of Babylon.
According to the fourth century historian
Eusebius of Caesarea, Egialeus, the first king in Greece,
began his reign in 2089 B.C., 1313 years before the
first Olympiad in 776 B.C. Yet, old-earthers say
Greece and the other civilizations are older than indicated
because of faith in the flawed carbon 14 results
(as explained in Chapter 12) and their Darwinian
philosophy. These results and philosophy have
been shown to be doubtful, at best; therefore, we
should look hard at the truly solid scientific and historical
The Byzantine chronicler, Constatinius Manasses, wrote
that the Egyptians state lasted 1663 years. If correct, then counting backward
from the time that Cambyses, King of Persia, conquered Egypt in 526 B.C., gives
us the year 2188 B.C. for the founding of Egypt. Menes, the legendary founder of Egypt, is
the Misraim (Hebrew) or Mestre (Greek) of the second
generation from Noah. Once again the Biblical timeframe matches.
When the Saxons began to migrate to Britain from
the European mainland about 500 A.D., the native
Britains (Welsh) noted the barbarous, pagan savagery
of their new neighbors. The Saxons practiced ancestor
worship (of Odin and Geat), and had no knowledge
of the Bible. The Welsh (which ironically means
“barbaric foreigner” in Saxon) had been evangelized
about 300 years before, so the cold-blooded, pagan
lifestyle of the Saxons was appalling to the Welsh.
These “savages” brought with them records of
their kings going back to their first king, Noah. These,
obviously Biblically ignorant Saxons, compiled their
king’s list through the centuries, with the Biblical
Noah appearing as their first king. We know that
the Biblical personages of Noah and the Saxon’s second
king, Sceaf (corruption of Iafeth or Japheth), were
not inserted at the beginning of their king’s list, after
Saxon christianization, for several reasons. Once they
became christianized, the Saxons changed their second
king’s name to Iafeth or Japheth (as in the Bible)
because they realized Sceaf was a corrupted spelling
of Japheth, as they read the book of Genesis. They
wanted to get it right. And if the king’s list was concocted
to concur with Genesis ancestries, why did
they stop at only two Biblical people to fraudulently
insert into their lineage? And why did they report
that Sceaf (changed later to Japheth) was born on the Ark, when the Bible clearly states that he helped
build the Ark?
There were five Saxon clans that came to England
around 500 A.D. These respective clans had their own
unique king’s lists that converged in the distant past
at their common ancestor, Odin. This Odin was worshipped
by all the Saxon clans as a deified forefather.
The Saxon clans’ lists are identical from Odin back
to Sceaf (Japheth), and to Noah. These rival clans
did not want to have common ancestry with their
rival “Houses” (House of Lindsay, House of Kent,
House of Mercia, House of Northumbria, House of
East Anglica), and yet, they could not deny their common
The Vikings of Scandinavia also trace their kings
back through Odin, Seskef (Japheth), and Noe
(Noah). Why would the Saxons and the Vikings, archenemies
for centuries, agree to get along and fake their
kings’ lists, as to have common ancestors and Biblical
people as their shared, earliest kings? The Viking’s were
not evangelized until at least 900 A.D., so the
christianized Saxons (evangelized about 500 A.D.) looked with horror at the
practices of these barbaric Vikings; no way could these savages from the north
have our heritage, thought the Saxons. But they did, no doubt, because they were
once united on the European mainland some 2,000 years before.
The Welsh trace their kings all the way back to
Noah, as well. Noah’s son, Japheth, is listed, as is his
grandson Javan; from there, the king’s list goes off
into strange non-Biblical names of kings or tribes.
We know that this list was compiled by Biblically illiterate
pagans because the source material is from
ancient literature, written in a now extinct language
(from before the time of Christ), which was translated
into modern languages at several points during
the Dark Ages (500-1200 A.D. )
The Miautso tribe of southern China also traces
its ancestry back through a son of Japheth, the son of
Noah. Whereas the Welsh trace through Japheths’ son
Javan, the Miautso trace through another of Japheth’s
(Jah-phu’s) sons, Gomer (Gomena). Also within their
history are the brothers of Japheth (Jah-phu), Ham
(Lo Han) and Shem (Lo Shen). The Miatso seemed
to know a lot about the Bible without having even
heard of it. Their Noah (Nuah) rode out a catastrophic
global flood, released a dove (remember the Chinese
wall art?), and landed on the drying land. They trace
their lineage even farther back than Noah (Nuah), all
the way to the first man, whose name translates
“Dirt”20 (Adam was formed from the earth).
Historians even corroborate this pre-Flood world
where the Bible says people lived 800-900 years. The
following pagan ancient historians mention much
longer life spans in a previous age: Hestiaeus, Mochus,
Berosus, Manetho, Hieronymus, Hesiod, Hecataeus,
Ephorus, and Nicolaus.
These long life spans were made possible by: a
much larger gene pool than had Noah’s small group,
lower UV radiation in the pre-Flood world caused by
possibly higher atmospheric pressure and by stronger
earth magnetism (that deflected UV), higher oxygen
and carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere
(as reflected in Flood sedimentary rocks), and perhaps
other factors [e.g. water canopy]. After the Flood, the limited gene
pool of the eight survivors (the genetic bottleneck
theorized by secular geneticists, and noted in Chapter
14) coupled with the diminution of the aforementioned
pre-Flood conditions, resulted in progressively
diminished life spans during the ten generations, or
so, after the Flood.
So you can see that secular history actually corroborates
the most accurate history book ever written,
the Bible. These pagan tribes, absent the Hebrew
account of history, nevertheless had a general knowledge
of the Flood and the ensuing genealogies, as related
to them by their ancestors, the offspring of
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