"And Joseph having got the
body, wrapped it in a clean linen cloth,
and laid it in his new tomb which he had hewn in the rock;
and having rolled a great stone to the door of the tomb, went away."
Is this the face of Jesus of Nazareth?
Artist's Rendering based
on Shroud Image
||The Shroud of Turin is one of the most
remarkable and mysterious artifacts in the world today. According to the
Bible scripture above, Jesus was buried in a single linen cloth. Believed by many to be the
actual burial cloth of Jesus (or Yeshua) the Messiah, the Shroud made its first
recorded appearance in 14th century France. Housed in the Italian city of Turin
since 1578, renewed interest was generated in 1898 when the first photographs
were made of the relic and it was discovered that the image on the Shroud was a
photographic negative! How was such an image made? And how does one explain the
incredibly life-like, 3-dimentional details which are remarkably consistent with Biblical
accounts of Jesus' execution? And why has nothing like it ever been found
or created? Historians, pathologists, linguists, biblical
scholars, textile experts, chemists, physicists, photographic specialists,
artists, botanists, microbiologists and other scientists from around the world
have been trying to answer these important questions for decades.
Many have tried to dismiss the Shroud as medieval forgery. But there are
no pigments to be found on the cloth - the image is somehow burnt into the
fibres. And remember -
the image on the Shroud is a photographic negative. Before the 19th
century with the invention of photography, no one had ever conceived of the
concept of a photographic negative. So to believe that it was painted on
the cloth by a medieval artist, you must first believe that people
understood the concept of the photographic negative 600 years before it was
invented! Can you believe that? Does anyone really
believe that? In fact, it is not possible to create another Shroud today
even with the amazing modern technology we have (if anyone thinks it is
possible, the challenge is now presented).
In 1988, some scientists had obtained a sample of the Shroud and conducted carbon-14 dating tests by three
different laboratories. These tests found it
to be some 1200 years younger than it should have been. While scores of Shroud scientists hotly challenged the
entire Carbon-14 testing procedure, as well as the test results, lay people
around the world had to wrestle with what appeared to be solid scientific proof
that the Shroud was a fake. So could the shroud be a fake? Could a
medieval artist, or for that matter, any artist, have forged it?
Then in the late 1990's it was discovered
that the sample used for the dating, which was taken from a corner of the
shroud, had been expertly repaired in the 1600's by re-weaving with cotton
fibres. It turns out that the sample taken was from the worst possible
place on the Shroud -- a corner which had been fairly recently repaired and
thus contaminated. The test process failed to follow the first rule of the
analytical chemistry age-dating process -- that any sample taken for
characterization of an area or population must necessarily be representative of
Webmaster Note: I give radiocarbon dating
very little weight in dating
artifacts. This is because the method assumes a billions of years old earth,
which we know isn't true. If radiocarbon dating were accurate, it would never
give a reading of more than about 6,000 years. Not to mention
contamination of the sample. As the evidence below shows, every
other metric indicates that this is a first century cloth from Palestine
(specifically the Jerusalem vicinity), with an unexplainable 3-D photographic
negative burned into it. The only metric which doesn't place this cloth from the
1st century is the original radiocarbon dating, although subsequent tests have
shown it could be from the 1st century. Carbon dating is notoriously "all over
the place" and should never be used to date things.
this page for how it really works when a rock or fossil is dated by an
If the Shroud is an authentic burial cloth from the first century, is the man
whose executed image appears on the Shroud actually that of Jesus the Messiah?
Christian's believe that the image must have been burned into the cloth at the
instant of his resurrection, which explains the photographic negative image.
If it is not Jesus' image, then how could another man's image have been burned
into it in the 1st century? Isn't it
inconceivable that it could be anyone but Jesus of Nazareth? The 1st
century coins covering his eyes are powerful evidence alone. Consider this
T. V. Oommen writes in a letter published by the Raleigh News:
I am responding to the Aug. 29
article “Scientists debate shroud’s date.” As a scientist involved
in the shroud’s study and research, and as a participant in the
recent Ohio Shroud Conference where I made a presentation on “Shroud
coins dating by image extraction,” I can emphatically say that there
is plenty of evidence for the antiquity of the shroud as of first
There were several presentations on
the erroneous dating of the shroud by the 1988 radiocarbon(C-14)
dating. The area where the samples were taken was from a medieval
patch with cotton, which appeared to blend almost perfectly with the linen
shroud. If this is true, the main body of the shroud should show an
ancient date. The theory that the entire shroud could show a more
recent date because of the newer carbon generated during fiery
events remains to be proven.
Some other scientists also propose
similar views; for example, that powerful radiations from the
resurrection event must have generated C-14. So another carbon
dating of the shroud may not resolve the issue.
The coin identification I presented
showed Pontius Pilate coins issued AD 30/31 placed on the eye area,
which implies the shroud’s age is very close to that. Read more
about it at
Combining ongoing discoveries about ancient Palestine with cutting-edge
scientific analysis, a growing number of scientists (Christian, Jewish, agnostic
and otherwise) are coming to the conclusion that the Shroud is indeed the actual
burial cloth of Jesus the Messiah. If this is true, then not only does the
Shroud bear witness to the fact that a man named Jesus actually lived and died
in ancient Palestine, but it may also present physical proof that a miraculous
event took place after his death which caused his image to be imprinted on the
Shroud. Moreover, we may also be able to learn something about Jesus himself:
What his physical characteristics were like, what kind of Jewish traditions he
adhered to and rejected, how he, and his body, faced a horribly violent death.
This is a painting by
Kramarik when she was 8 years old. The first time
I heard of Akiane, I was watching
“Heaven is for Real” by Todd Burpo. In the spring of 2003,
the author’s little boy, Colton, suffered from a near-fatal
illness and hadvisions of heaven. After Colton recovered,
his dad kept showing him images of Jesus, and Colton kept
shaking his head and saying "no, that doesn’t look like
him". Finally, Todd showed him Akiane’s painting of
and Colton said, "yes, that's him".
Every testimony I've
ever heard of people who when to heaven and came back to
tell the story say that Jesus "looks very Jewish".
This man looks very Jewish and could be the man on the
So what exactly do we know about the Shroud of Turin? Here are some of the
amazing findings that modern day forensics has uncovered so far:
- The body that appears on the Shroud is naked. Under Roman law, criminals were
whipped and executed in the nude. (These are facts that most medieval artists
would not have known, or if they had known, would not have dared to publicly
- The man that appears on the Shroud was executed with nails driven through his
wrists. Although artists throughout the centuries (and even stigmatists) have
traditionally thought that Jesus was nailed to the stake through his palms, it
is now known that Roman-style execution victims were nailed to stakes through
their wrists. This is supported both by archeological digs that discovered
execution victims with spike marks on their wrists (not palms) and also by
studies that were conducted on corpses which proved that nails in palms will not
support the weight of a body.
- The life-size image on the cloth is NOT the result of pigment, stain, acid,
dye, or any applied material. The image itself is confined to the top-most
fibrils of the cloth's fibers. Whatever made the image did not penetrate the
fibers of the cloth as all known artistic materials would.
- The image on the Shroud is uniquely three-dimensional. Although most
scientists believe that the image was made by the body emitting a burst of
energy of some kind (which caused the body's image to be lightly burned onto the
Shroud), they have no idea how this could have been done. Efforts to lightly
burn images into shroud-like fabrics have all failed to reproduce the
extraordinarily delicate, detailed, three-dimensional effect found on the
Shroud. The way the image was burned onto the Shroud is also flawlessly accurate
in terms of how a body emitting energy would imprint itself on a cloth that was
- The image of the Shroud is absolutely accurate in both anatomical and
- The anatomical and physiological details of the Shroud accurately record what
would happen to a man who experienced a Roman-style execution (see Robert
Bucklin's pathological report at the end of this summary).
- The Shroud is stained by human blood that has run out of the image's wounds.
The way the blood flowed, puddled and stained the Shroud are perfectly correct.
Unlike the Shroud's image which only appears on the topmost fibrils of fabric,
the blood on the Shroud soaked deeply into the fabric.
- The exact way the man was executed closely matches biblical accounts of Jesus's execution. Among other things, there are 120 lesions, the shape of
dumbbells, distributed over the back and running around the front of the body --
probably caused by a Roman whip called a flagrum whose thongs were tipped with
bits of lead or bone. There is a deep wound on the right side of the body
between the ribs which bled profusely (which is what Biblical records indicate
happened when a spear was thrust into Jesus's side). There are thorn-like marks
on the victim's head (consistent with the crown of thorns described in the
Bible). And the victim's legs were not broken (which is significant both because
Roman-style executions ended with their victim's legs being broken and because
the New Testament account of Jesus's death indicates that this was a Roman
custom which Jesus was spared from).
- The beard and hair style of the executed man were not common anywhere in the
Roman Empire except Palestine. The image has semitic features, including
sidelocks and a unplaited ponytail.
- The Shroud itself was woven with techniques common to the first century. The
Shroud's distinctive weave is so rare that researchers seeking to find a control
sample could not find one anywhere in the world.
- A dirt sample taken from near the Shroud image's feet was identified as a
relatively rare form of calcium carbonate. The dirt was analyzed at the Hercules
Aerospace Laboratory in Salt Lake, Utah, where experts identified crystals of
travertine argonite, a relatively rare form of calcite found near the Damascus
Gate in Jerusalem. Is it likely that a 13th century forger would have known to
take the trouble to impregnate the linen with marble dust found near
Golgotha in order to fool scientists six hundred years later?
- 58 varieties of pollen were discovered on the Shroud. 11 of the pollen samples
were from plants that do not exist in Europe, but which do exist in the Near
East. The pollen samples also indicated that the fabric of the Shroud had to
have been made in Palestine before circulating in Europe. Pollen samples also
helped trace the Shroud's route from Palestine through Anatolia and
Constantinople into Europe. Furthermore, two of the pollen samples that were
discovered on the Shroud coincided with highly distinctive plants found in the
region surrounding Jerusalem. The pollen study concluded that the Shroud itself
was probably made near Jerusalem and that it had been in the vicinity of the
Holy City for some time before being transported out of the area.
- Images of 28 different types of flowers, small bushes, and thorns have been
detected in bunches around the Shroud image. All 28 grow in Israel, either in
Jerusalem or in the nearby desert or Dead Sea area. Most of them are not found
in Europe. 25 of the 28 flowers matched the pollen samples found on the Shroud.
27 of the 28 plants bloom during March and April, which corresponds to the time
of the execution.
- An image of a coin appears over the right eye of the Shroud image. This coin,
a very rare Pontius Pilate lepton struck in 29 to 32 A.D., was not found until
- Tests which were conducted in 1993 on a piece of first century fabric similar
to the Shroud's now indicate that a fire the Shroud passed through in 1532
corrupted the October 1988 Carbon-14 dates that concluded the Shroud was not
authentic. According to these recent tests, which were conducted by scientists
at the University of Arizona and Russian scientists in Moscow, the 1988
Carbon-14 dates were some 1200 years in error. This dates the Shroud back to the
first or second century.
- Some historians believe the Shroud of Turin may be The Mandylion, or Edessa
Portrait, a holy relic mentioned in some accounts as early as the first century.
If this is so, then the Shroud can be traced, through various legends and
stories, all the way back to first century Jerusalem.
And finally, Robert Bucklin, deputy coroner of Los Angeles and a member of The
Shroud of Turin Research Team, compiled the following pathological report
concerning the Shroud:
"There is no problem in diagnosing what happened to this individual. The
pathology and physiology are unquestionable and represent medical knowledge
unknown 150 years ago.
"This is a 5-foot-11-inch male Caucasian weighing about 178 pounds. The lesions
are as follows: Beginning at the head, there are blood flows from numerous
puncture wounds on the top and back of the scalp and forehead. The man has been
beaten about the face. There is a swelling over one cheek, and he undoubtedly
has a black eye. His nose tip is abraded, as would occur from a fall, and it
appears that the nasal cartilage may have separated from the bone.
"There is a wound in the left wrist, the right one being covered by the left
hand. This is the typical lesion of a Roman-style execution. There is a stream
of blood down both arms. Here and there, there are blood drips at an angle from
the main blood flow in response to gravity. These angles represent the only ones
that can occur from the only two positions which can be taken by a body during
"On the back and front there are lesions which appear to be scourge marks. The
victim was whipped from both sides by two men, one of whom was taller than the
other, as demonstrated by the angle of the thongs.
"There is a rough swelling of both shoulders, with abrasions indicating that
something heavy and rough had been carried across the man's shoulders within
hours of death.
"On the right flank, a long, narrow blade of some type entered in an upward
direction, pierced the diaphragm, penetrated the thoracic cavity through the
lung into the heart. This was a post-mortem event (it happened after the man was
already dead), because separate components of red blood cells and clear serum
drained from the lesion. Later, after the corpse was laid out horizontally and
face up on the cloth, blood dribbled out of the side wound and puddled along the
small of the back.
"There is an abrasion of one knee, commensurate with a fall; and finally, a
spike had been driven through both feet, and blood had leaked from both wounds
onto the cloth.
"The evidence of a scourged man who was executed and died from cardiopulmonary
failure typical of Roman-style execution is clear-cut."
Shroud of Turin Scientific Timeline - 1988 to Present:
Absence of any distortions in the Shroud image.
Absence of any apparent paint medium of any kind.
Absence of any significant detectable silver or chromium which would have
resulted from any experimentation with photographic processes.
Image's imprinting on only one side of the cloth.
Image's density as inversely proportional to the cloth's distance from the body.
Images apparent sensitivity to cuts of thread used to make up linen in the
Dr. Mills proposed two possible mechanisms that may be involved in the Shroud
image: the Volckringer effect - which creates images similar to plant images
left on pages of a book in which a plant leaf has been pressed; or, the Russell
effect - involving materials that leave their images on photographic plates held
in total darkness by a mechanism thought to involve singlet-oxygen reactions.
Dr. Mills states that it's singlet oxygen released from traumatized cells that
could account for the creation of the Image on the Shroud.
1996 - Drs. Mattingly and Garza-Valdes lead team at the University of Texas
Health Sciences Center which concluded that the carbon dating of Shroud done in
1988 may be erroneous since the Shroud samples do not appear to have been
appropriately treated to remove biogenic varnishes. The varnish effect they
describe is valid for all carbon-dating on textiles of ancient origin.
The final scientific dating of the Shroud has yet to be conducted since the
Vatican must approve the extraction of further samples to be used in carbon
dating. However, the Shroud can definitively be said to contain the image of a
man crucified in exactly the same manner as Jesus of Nazareth; it is encrusted
with human blood; it carries visible and invisible indications of scourging; and somehow
was created with a three-dimensional imaging process that is still unknown in
1996. The Shroud is not a painting of any kind, it's not a primitive form of
photography and does not bear any evidence of being made by human hands.
It is an enigma primarily because of the controversy surrounding the
carbon-dating of the Shroud and the unknown manner in which the image was
imprinted on the fabric...if the fabric should subsequently be found to date
from the first century then it will have been shown to be the burial cloth of a
severly beaten and executed man from the near-East - almost certainly a Jew, who
was wrapped in a linen cloth unwashed according to the Halachah and handled in
strict accordance with Jewish Law; who wore a pony tail, a symbol of resistance
against Roman occupation in first century Palestine; who had deep wounds in his
wrists and feet; puncture wounds surrounding his upper forehead; a deep wound in
his left side just below the rib cage which left evidence of blood and fluid;
and a man whose image was imprinted on the Shroud in a manner that still defies
Could it be that modern scientific technology, the end-result of rational
materialism, is about to make known to the world at the end of the twentieth
century the fact that the execution and resurrection of Jesus is not some
ancient myth...that the resurrection of Jesus is a physical reality?
Isn't it interesting that only now in the late-twentieth century can human
technology uncover the fact that the Shroud image has three-dimensional
characteristics, that the Shroud contains human blood, that the
person scourged was hit 120 times by two Roman flagelli and that the image
appears as if it was imprinted on the fabric by an energy or chemical burst from
the body it once contained - in a process that is still unknown! Perhaps the
Shroud was destined for this time.
The Byzantine Coins predates the carbon dating on the Shroud by over 600 years
Dr. Alan Whanger, retired from Duke University, has demonstrated that the Shroud
man's face also bears strong likeness, with 145 points of congruence, to a
Byzantine coin that has the distinction of being the first coin in history to
present a portrait bust of Jesus, dated 685-695.
The scientific concensus is that the image was produced by something which
resulted in oxidation, dehydration and conjugation of the polysaccharide
structure of the microfibrils of the linen itself. Such changes can be
duplicated in the laboratory by certain chemical and physical processes. A
similar type of change in linen can be obtained by sulphuric acid or heat.
However, there are no chemical or physical methods known which can account for
the totality of the image, nor can any combination of physical, chemical,
biological or medical circumstances explain the image adequately."
COLUMBUS, Ohio, August 15, 2008 —
In his presentation today at The Ohio State University’s
Blackwell Center, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) chemist,
Robert Villarreal, disclosed startling new findings proving that
the sample of material used in 1988 to Carbon-14 (C-14) date the
Shroud of Turin, which categorized the cloth as a medieval fake,
could not have been from the original linen cloth because it was
cotton. According to Villarreal, who lead the LANL team working
on the project, thread samples they examined from directly
adjacent to the C-14 sampling area were “definitely not linen”
and, instead, matched cotton. Villarreal pointed out that “the
 age-dating process failed to recognize one of the first
rules of analytical chemistry that any sample taken for
characterization of an area or population must necessarily be
representative of the whole. The part must be representative of
the whole. Our analyses of the three thread samples taken from
the Raes and C-14 sampling corner showed that this was not the
case.” Villarreal also revealed that, during testing, one of the
threads came apart in the middle forming two separate pieces. A
surface resin, that may have been holding the two pieces
together, fell off and was analyzed. Surprisingly, the two ends
of the thread had different chemical compositions, lending
credence to the theory that the threads were spliced together
during a repair.
LANL’s work confirms the
research published in Thermochimica Acta (Jan. 2005) by the late
Raymond Rogers, a chemist who had studied actual C-14 samples
and concluded the sample was not part of the original cloth
possibly due to the area having been repaired. This hypothesis
was presented by M. Sue Benford and Joseph G. Marino in Orvieto,
Italy in 2000. Benford and Marino proposed that a 16th Century
patch of cotton/linen material was skillfully spliced into the
1st Century original Shroud cloth in the region ultimately used
for dating. The intermixed threads combined to give the dates
found by the labs ranging between 1260 and 1390 AD. Benford and
Marino contend that this expert repair was necessary to disguise
an unauthorized relic taken from the corner of the cloth. A
paper presented today at the conference by
Benford and Marino, and to be published in the July/August
issue of the international journal Chemistry Today, provided
additional corroborating evidence for the repair theory.
Links for further reading:
You can also google "Benford
and Marino" and "Ray Rogers" who was
a scientist involved in the testing.